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Identity theft victims, particularly those whose information is used to open new accounts in their name but don't receive the bills, may not discover the crime for months or even years. In fact, sometimes the first sign of fraudulent activity isn't noticed until they start to receive calls from debt collectors.
To stop a debt collector from contacting you, the FTC advises sending a letter to the collection agency telling them that you are a victim of identity theft and do not owe the money. Include copies of supporting documents generated to report identity fraud, such as a police report or Identity Theft Affidavit. If you do not have documentation to support your position, be specific about why the debt is not yours. It is the collector's responsibility to prove you are wrong. For example, if the debt is a result of a credit card that you did not apply for, you are entitled to ask for a copy of the application. You can then prove your innocence by comparing signatures.
If the debt collector is making collections for another company, the debt collector is responsible to tell that company that you may be an identity theft victim. However, you still need to contact the creditor yourself to dispute and resolve the debt.